About the last 10 years the use of R&W coverage in merger and acquisition transactions has grown exponentially. From 2008 to 2018, the total R&W insurance policies certain for each calendar year in North America rose from 40 specials, delivering $541 million of coverage to 1500+ R&W coverage transactions, furnishing mixture coverage of $38.6 billion.[1] We are also observing a marked enhance in the share of deals exactly where R&W coverage is currently being regarded as and becoming employed. Aon estimates that around 45% of all personal M&A transactions in North The us experienced R&W insurance in 2018.[2]

Publicly documented bargains also replicate expanding utilization of R&W insurance coverage for transactions ranging in dimension from $35 million to $21.4 billion.[3] Based mostly on our individual working experience, for the 1st time, equally strategic and fiscal events in nearly each and every deal around $30 million are at least taking into consideration the use of R&W insurance coverage. We are also observing an boost in “no seller indemnity deals”, which Aon estimates to have elevated from 12% to 26% of all R&W insurance bargains from 2016 to 2018 and, if our experience this 12 months is dependable with that of the broader current market, we believe all those figures will be even better for 2019.


R&W coverage is usually procured by the customer, with the consumer staying the insured bash beneath the coverage. In its simple type R&W insurance covers breaches by the seller or concentrate on of their respective representations and warranties in the acquisition settlement up to a coverage limit. Insurance policies mainly incorporate the indemnification conditions of the acquisition arrangement (together with the underlying representations and warranties). Insurers will also insure towards pre-closing taxes as aspect of a primary plan.


  • For a consumer, the most important benefit of an R&W plan is to distinguish a bid (or, typically, retain speed with other bids) in an auction or other aggressive process.
  • An additional considerable benefit for a buyer is that the R&W policy makes it possible for the consumer to acquire submit-closing recourse from a third occasion (as opposed to the previous stakeholders of the goal – some of whom may be essential employees of the customer immediately after closing).
  • For a seller, R&W insurance policy substantially lowers the volume of cash the seller must area in escrow to cover its write-up-closing indemnification obligations (roughly .5% to 1% of the invest in rate as as opposed to a 10% escrow). And as earlier mentioned, usually we are viewing “no vendor indemnity deals”, where by the seller is not needed to location any resources in escrow.
  • This is significantly useful for PE sellers wanting to close stop-of-lifetime money and distribute the proceeds from the sale to their investors as swiftly as doable.

High quality and Crucial Conditions

Coverage Restrict – In the existing market place, the policy limit for an R&W plan is normally 10-15% of the order selling price or enterprise benefit of the offer. The plan limit plays the part of what would otherwise be the cap on the vendor indemnity or the vendor escrow.

Pricing – Quality is normally in the variety of 2.25% to 3.00% of the plan limit (or $22,500 to $30,000 per $1 million of coverage), including broker commissions (10-20% of the premium) moreover underwriting fees (normally between $25,000 and $50,000) and a top quality tax.

Promises Time period – The common policy interval is 3 decades for non-fundamental representations (i.e., for a longer period than a typical survival interval of 12-18 months in an acquisition settlement) and 6 yrs for fundamental representations and pre-closing taxes.

Retention – The original retention is ordinarily .75 – 1.00% of the transaction value.

Retention Break up – In which sellers are needed to location money in escrow, the retention is generally “split” between the purchaser and seller – the purchaser will take the initial layer of liability in the variety of a “true deductible” (usually 50 % of the retention total), and the vendor takes the following layer of liability (the next fifty percent of the retention quantity), which is often funded by means of an escrow.

What Is Not Lined  

  • Guidelines do not include “known issues” (i.e. breaches of representations and warranties that ended up regarded by the buyer prior to the inception of the coverage).
  • Procedures usually have a range of normal exclusions, including pension liabilities, obtain cost or performing cash changes, covenant breaches and net running losses or other deferred tax belongings.
  • Statements that are protected by other styles of insurance plan are also normally excluded or confined.
  • Specific exclusions for dangers in the lifestyle sciences sector this kind of as fake statements risk (e.g., Medicare/Medicaid reimbursement relevant statements), drug efficacy and hazard associated with style of or accomplishment or failure of medical trials can typically make R&W insurance plan considerably less interesting for these organizations.
  • Most effective practice is to overview the policy wording carefully to understand the scope of any exclusions and influence on the transaction. In many cases, with added thanks diligence and negotiation, specific exclusions can be narrowed or eradicated.


  • As additional insurers have entered this marketplace and attained expertise, the underwriting course of action has develop into much more streamlined and rates and retentions have declined.
  • The underwriting process can generally be completed in as tiny as one particular to two weeks (from partaking broker to binding the plan).


  • Close to 1 in 5 insurance policies consequence in a documented claim dependent on an AIG analyze masking procedures created among 2011-2016, even though some of these claims result in reduction that would fall within the policy’s retention.
  • Prospective buyers have also gotten a lot more snug with the R&W coverage promises system and track file of assert payments, ensuing in rising reliance on insurance policy to limit or eliminate seller indemnities or escrows. On the other hand, one of the lingering thoughts about R&W insurance policy as an productive transaction tool proceeds to be payout working experience and what it will glimpse like about time.

Important Considerations for Tech Firms

For potential buyers of technologies firms, R&W insurance policies will normally cover most of the significant representations and warranties, together with all those relating to intellectual home possession, and, under some scrutiny by underwriters, freedom to run, information privateness and protection and compliance with work legislation.

Crucial considerations for tech companies when considering the use of R&W insurance policies in their specials ought to include things like the following:

Scope of Data Privateness Protection – Protection for details privacy connected liability can be contingent on the target retaining an underlying cyber or info privateness plan and might be minimal to the scope of that policy. Tech firms should assessment their or the target’s current cyber coverage with this in mind.

Formal Thanks Diligence Stories – Insurers commonly will overview third get together thanks diligence experiences as component of their underwriting system. These types of stories include good quality of earnings studies, open source code scans, protection audits and any reports concerning applicable regulatory compliance matters (specifically for fiscal products and services or health care IT corporations). Potential buyers and sellers need to function to proactively get these types of reports as portion of the acquisition approach so that they will quickly be obtainable for the R&W insurers to review.

Policy Conditions/Scope of Protection – Customers of tech corporations will want to tailor their R&W coverage to make certain that the coverage is in line with their rationale for the acquisition. For instance, customers of recurring earnings centered-corporations need to contemplate whether or not or not the definition of “Loss” is correctly tailored to their valuation methodology (e.g. an ARR or MRR various). Other important coverage regions for technological know-how customers normally consist of IP, personnel classification, gross sales tax and details privateness/protection.


R&W insurance is a resource that is significantly obtainable for center-current market and bigger transactions to aid offer-generating. NaijaNGR’s M&A attorneys and coverage professionals are experienced and knowledgeable with R&W insurance policies products and their pros and disadvantages as in comparison to a traditional indemnity and escrow composition. NaijaNGR has labored with many brokers and insurers in the marketplace and is aware what typical industry conditions must be for a policy, which can aid streamline negotiations.

By Kevin Mills, Al Browne and Michael Coburn

For far more information on R&W coverage, observe our Dealology video with NaijaNGR companion Eric Schwartzman here.

[1] Source: Advisen – Hemenway, Chad. “Transaction insurance takes the 10-year challenge.” Advisen, 6 Feb. 2019. https://www.advisen.com/instruments/fpnproc/fpns/articles or blog posts_new_1/P/330996328.html?rid=330996328&record_id=1#.XHRha21CsSI.twitter

[2] Source: Aon – “North The us M&A and Transaction Options Possibility in Review 2019.”

[3] Resource: DealPointData – Data group involves transactions in which either the seller or purchaser filed the acquisition agreement with the SEC, so this information team does not incorporate a sale by a PE firm to yet another PE organization.


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